Cuba



Background:

The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from the US in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source if its difficulties. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, air flights, or via the southwest border - is a continuing problem. The US Coast Guard intercepted some 1,000 individuals attempting to cross the Straits of Florida in fiscal year 2011.






















Nationality:

noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban
Ethnic Groups:

white 65.1%, mulatto and mestizo 24.8%, black 10.1% (2002 census)
Languages:

Spanish (official)
Religions:

nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria
note: prior to CASTRO assuming power
Population:

11,075,244 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74





















Major Cities - Population:

HAVANA (capital) 2.14 million (2009)












Statistics
Percent Urbanization75 %
Total People Groups15
Unreached People Groups2
RegionNorth America and Caribbean
10/40 WindowNo
Official National LanguageSpanish
Primary ReligionChristianity
Percent Christian Adherent56.2%  [1]
Percent Evangelical8.6%  [2]
Country Progress Level3.2 
Persecution Ranking41 (1=High to 50=Low OD)
Human Development IndexNot reported (0=Low to 1=High UN)

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